[TEMP CHECK] ENS invalid name refund proposal

I have a heap of names registered through app.ens.domains

  • ‘SpaceX
  • McDonald‘s
  • NFT‘s
  • ‘Money
  • ‘Bitcoin
  • ‘Ethereum
  • ‘Sony

And anyone simply a few names that used the apostrophe.

I can currently use them to receive and send crypto.

Be cool if they were included in update.

Unfortunately, I only selected one apostrophe (2019 (’) RIGHT APOSTROPHE) to remain legal in the new normalization spec, and only in specific circumstances (cannot lead, trail, or touch.)

The names you list are now disallowed and part of the refund process.

I think the following is sufficient justification for this change:

  • ’Bitcoin
  • ʼBitcoin
  • ′Bitcoin
  • ‛Bitcoin
  • ‘Bitcoin
  • ‵Bitcoin
  • ῾Bitcoin

Although there are many quotation/punctuation characters allowed in UTS-46, I don’t think there’s a single legacy registrar on the planet that permits these characters to be registered.

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When does the refund process start?


I don’t consider it noble, I think it is logic. We could say ENS started chaotically, and once things became more clear (thanks also to your big research, which helped many to understand a lot about encodings) it became also possible to establish rules. So… it’s not a noble gift. It is just money that can be spent better by their related owners. Some people live in jurisdictions around the world where they have to pay taxes on the money they spent on NFT. So imagine you paid something with a vanishing utility and you also have to pay taxes on it. We can’t get back gas from miners and validators, so I don’t feel to discuss it too much (although some players spent a lot of gas… so I will let this for the rest of the community but to me if possible to refund the gas it would be nice anyway) but at least what was registered via the dapp frontend should be refunded. We aren’t talking about changing the rules of ethereum, we are talking about ENS as a DAO. The game rules must be clear. Once they are clear the problem won’t emerge anymore and we know what game we play.


Thanks for starting this! I made a few edits; otherwise it looks like a great start.

We should probably do a survey of the major execution clients and what languages they use so we can be specific in the RFP.

I made the following changes reflecting some feedback and the recent snapshot result

  • Froze the time to be at 18th June when the snapshot proposal was approved the (code diff)
  • Reduced the option from 3 to 2 ( as option b and c were close)

Here is the updated list of refund address and options.


While observing all the refunding names at this page, I found dozens of questionable names whether it should be included in the refund list.


This is the largest name to be refunded with 15 ETH , mostly because it was acquired at a premium. The last owner acquired the name 4 months ago with 15 ETH premium.

3 char/digit names

There are bunch names that look like 3 letter digit/names (they are just examples and there are a lot more of these)

  • bеn.eth
  • ɢᴏᴅ.eth
  • ʟɪɴᴋ.eth
  • ooз.eth
  • ссс.eth
  • gоd.eth
  • ৪৪৪.eth
  • аbc.eth

It’s hard to tell whether these people registered the name with the intention of scamming others or they are the ones that get scammed (but highly likely they registered to scam others unless they acquire the names at secondary market).

Would love to hear wider opinion of whether we should manually inspect individual names to consider including/excluding. cc @raffy

For others, please post if there are any other questionable names at https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/11bxFy9ll-53bBmfgOm0O-rkHTg3mb6uylVZDmQm4waw/edit#gid=1731480659

IMO, the Latin-like confusables are likely malicious, especially when it a single substitution (like "bеn" = [62 435 6E]. Pure small-caps should probably be refunded as they were original valid.

I can produce a subset of the questionable that I’d personally exclude, if that’s what you’re looking for.

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I think that for simplicity we should set impartial rules and adhere to them; err on the side of no false-negatives, rather than no false-positives.

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Sorry if this was blocked on me, I forgot about this and was only reminded the other evening in Discord.

I split the names into a few categories: output.json

  not_ensip1: 203,        // not ENSIP-1
  wrong_pure_emoji: 208,  // just emoji but wrong form => REFUND
  braille_spacer: 62,     // spoof
  small_caps: 373,        // now invalid => REFUND
  arabic_an: 772,         // now mapped => REFUND
  single_script: 3239,    // 90%? REFUND but contains spoofs
  latin_like: 174,        // 2+ of (Latin, Greek, Cyrl), mostly spoofs 
  all_invalid: 2780,      // 90%? REFUND but contains spoofs
  unknown: 208

However, some of the names still require case-by-case inspection:

I think you can safely remove braille_spacer, not_ensip1, and the bulk of latin_like (~400 names). I’d error on the side of caution and refund the remainder.

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@nick @raffy @matoken.eth
I bought that ETHEREUM.eth as collectible and to use it for the creation of an “elective” pfp, for maybe “reselling subnames” one day connected to it
not maliciously
very honestly I don’t see how it could be maliciously used. It isn’t a name with mixed chars.
raffy app was giving green lights
I had several ethereum.eth variations with some artistic shapes, all of them using chars of the same family, no weird thing nor tricks nor bullshit.
some have been excluded and I couldn’t renew them, that one was already mine, I forgot to renew it, and I bought it back at premium, not without pain. I was the previous owner and I bought it again.
Since the interface allowed me to buy it I was pretty in peace with it, the other names were excluded but this one was still accepted.
and that’s the point, when I realized raffy excluded a new series of chars I found impossible to renew some of the special ethereum.eth versions I had (an example is that weird font that messes up completely the writing, often used in cyberpunk situations - I forgot the name)
in few words I was really collecting some of the nicest version of ethereum.eth with pure sequences of special chars.
All of them impossible to be confused.
Now things are becoming embarrassing.
(not to mention that I will have to pay 26% of taxes next year for it if it is not recognized as some kind of token I can resell)
it was a straight name with all chars of the same family…
why do you consider it malicious?
I just saw this final debate and I am going to sleep shocked lol
I know there are people who bought tons of names, so basically some of them may be even more affected than me. Very honestly I don’t know what to say.
The logic thing had to be to allow only straight alphabet and then add later other special chars one by one after checking them, discussing them, and voting them.
This process instead was approached backwards. We al know it was an error, but you can’t judge the people because your feeling is “maybe they wanted to scam someone”
Also the word malicious is very likely inappropriate in many situations, since a lot of people have no idea of how encoding works. I am a dev, I know how it works, but I know it much better now after following raffy’s research. We all underestimated the encoding problem. Don’t say it is not true.

I am so malicious I am doxxing myself.
it was the best name ever
now I have no name and no 15eth
it is a pure small-cap with chars of the same family, no tricks
remember many people really bought as collectibles
as raffy noted: smallcaps don’t have S
so I can imagine many people would tend to put a normal S to complete a smallcaps word if they need an S
it is not necessarily a malicious attitude
…but it wasn’t my case anyway!
if it makes you feel better check the few names I had and you excluded and didn’t allow me to renew, and you will see I always had pretty straight things

but anyway who can judge who is good and who is bad?
many of us really approached the problem as an artistic opportunity
(those who registered zero length dividers actually look a bit scammy lol but still I would refund everyone and close this chapter once and for all: error done => error fixed)

And after that if you’ll get scammed go to the police

Refund everyone or refund no one.
Or become the scammers.

The name ᴇᴛʜᴇʀᴇᴜᴍ.eth was valid, and now it isn’t, and should be refunded. I don’t think anyone was suggesting otherwise.

I apologize that small-caps were removed however I believe it was for the best.

I agree with you that it’s very hard to decide intent and the line between creative and malicious is very subjective.


After trying to follow you while digging in the encoding mess I consider you one of the few planetary experts. IF you suggest to remove smallcaps or anything else I don’t even ask you why. The important is to build a bulletproof machine. Properly because it is a complex problem.
But yes my EHTEREUM.eth made me feel pretty elitary!

Hey @cypherparty,
Sorry that one was deemed invalid buy the new standard. If you are refunded the full premium paid as described here, do you feel okay about the outcome in general?

if I get back the money… in few words I won’t be affected. I had dreams/visions but who cares.
I understand the reason and I consider it logic. Things must be bulletproof.
As I said if I’d have a time machine I would go back in time and suggest to start with simple latin alphabet and vote one by one any further chars the community would like to add.
But thinking retrospectively is always easier.
I doxxed myself because Makoto associated the words “questionable/scam” to the name I registered and lost. :face_with_monocle:

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actually I will be affected if the refund happens the next year and not this one, since I will have to refile my tax report, and next year I will have to explain what are those eth incoming, and maybe pay the taxes onthem too. We’ll see. I’ll pay a lawyer to know better. Once I see things moving.

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If the names expire will we still be entitled to the refund?

Also, is that the same for testnet names?

If the name expired before 18th June (the date the normalisation proposal passed), then no refund.
If the name expired after 18th June, then it should be in the refund list

No. Test names are for testing purpose and could change depending on the test upgrades so the ownership is not guaranteed.

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Yeah cool, sounds legit.

It says I’m eligible for 10 names refunded, A) 0.055 and B) 0.056

These are what I registered:

NEWYORK (Circled Letters)
BLOCKCHAIN (Circled Letters)

Im wondering, if I didn’t sell a name and just gifted it to a friend (E.g ‘1‘.eth) am I still eligible for a refund for that name?

Lastly, thank you to all ENS delegates, and Foundational Working Group Stewards. You’re all doing a fantastic job with the DAO.


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As I said, all the distribution addresses we collected using the date of 18th June. If the name was transferred before the data, your friend will get a refund. If after the date, then you will get the refund.

I suggest checking these 2 files to cross check the refunding address and amount